Low-Carb or Low-Fat Diet
How Low-Carb or Low-Fat Diet Works
A study gives answers
In which way do I best take off? And do my genes decide about the success of the diet? A study gives answers – and raises new questions.
Low fat, low carb , pineapple, stone age and Mediterranean diet or just FdH – eat half. If you want to lose weight, you are already spoiled for choice in the diet . Which does not make things easier: Some recent investigations give hints that one should consider in the decision not only the personal preferences, but possibly also the personal gene profile.
Thus, genetically determined metabolic properties affect how well someone responds to a particular diet. In the worst case, all efforts would be in vain if a selected diet does not fit the personal profile.
Study compares low-fat and low-carb diets
However, this principle still seems to be far from practicable implementation: according to a new study by American scientists, previously considered genetic traits do not play a role in customer success, at least in comparison between a low-carbohydrate (low-carb) and a low-fat diet . In general, both diets help equally well or poorly in slimming.
The team around Christopher Gardner of Stanford University Medical School (US state of California) had 609 overweight study participants between 18 and 50 years divided into two groups. One ate for one year low-fat, the other low-carbohydrate diet.
Low-fat diets limit the consumption of fatty foods. These include, for example
· Dairy products,
· Sausage and
This slows down the intake of high-calorie fat – you should lose weight.
Carbohydrate-rich foods are largely taboo on the low-carb diet. For example:
· fruit and
· many vegetables.
The idea behind it: Carbohydrates are converted into glucose in the body, the blood sugar level rises. To counter this, the body releases insulin, which transports the sugar into the cells. Many carbohydrates lead to a strong insulin secretion and as a result to a rapid drop in blood sugar levels, which then again causes a feeling of hunger.
To prevent this, the low-carbohydrate diet should contain less and above all high-quality carbohydrates – for example from wholegrain bread. These are broken down more slowly in the body, the ups and downs of blood sugar levels and associated food cravings should be prevented.
Influence of genetic factors on the diet result
The participants followed their respective diet plan for a year after a month of habituation. They did not get a fixed maximum calorie count – but the requirement was to eat a healthy and wholesome whole, ie to eat as much vegetables as possible and less industrially processed food and to cook for themselves. For these and other topics, the participants received regular training.
In order to determine the influence of genetic factors on the dietary result, the researchers determined before the study, which variant of three different genes the participants had. The respective expression is according to recent findings with the fat and carbohydrate metabolism in connection. Finally, they also determined via a glucose tolerance test how well the body can regulate blood sugar levels.
Result after one year
After a year, the participants had lost on average just over 5.5 kilograms – in both groups and completely independent of their individual gene type and their insulin metabolism. The range of reactions to the diet was high: some participants lost up to 30 kilograms, others gained 15 or 20 kilograms. “This study closes the door on some issues – but opens the door to others,” commented lead author Gardner.
In further studies, the scientists still hope to find an explanation for the great variability in the individual properties.”We have a lot of data that we can now use in subsequent studies.” Perhaps there are differences in epigenetics – that is, the implementation of genetic information – or in the colonization with bacteria.
Recommendations of the Nutrition Society
The study once again demonstrates the complexity of the topic of nutrition and how difficult it is to derive recommendations from individual scientific studies. The German Society for Nutrition (DGE) had adjusted its ten rules for a full-fledged diet last year after some criticism. The recommendation to favor low-fat dairy products has been deleted. The indication of health hazards due to too many saturated fatty acids has also been removed.
Today, the company recommends a flat-rate preference for vegetable oils and for “hidden fats”, for example in sausages and finished goods. With regard to carbohydrate-containing foods, the DGE recommends favoring the whole-grain variety – for example whole-wheat bread instead of toast.